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The ratio calculator performs two types of operations:

• Solve ratios for the missing value when comparing ratios or proportions.
• Compare ratios and evaluate as true or false to answer whether ratios or fractions are equivalent.

This ratio calculator will accept decimals.

Formula

Enter A(value), B(divided by) and C(equals) to find D(divided by).

The calculator solves for D = C * (B/A)

Example

D = 2 * (100 / 50)

= 4

The required rate of return is the minimum return an investor is willing to accept on an investment. This rate is used in the calculation of the present value of future cash flows needed to evaluate the investment options. So, we need to determine the required rate of return to be used in the decision. We can always just pick a number. But, as financial professionals, we need to be a little more scientific in our approach.

The dividend discount formula uses the expected annual dividend of a stock, the stock price and a growth factor to calculate the required rate of return. Sometimes referred to as the Gordon Growth model, it estimates the return on an individual investment in the stock market. This rate can be used to compare different investment opportunities. The growth factor is the anticipated increase in dividends expected over the next year. We will estimate this growth using a five year trend.

Formula:

Required Rate of Return = g + Current Annual Dividend (1 + g)Current Price

Example: Current Annual Dividend = 1000
Current Price = 100000
Constant Growth Rate (g) = 8.9109 %

Required Rate of Return(k)

Required Rate of Return (k)= g +Current annual Dividend(1 + g)Current Price

k = 8.9109% + [1000 * (1 + 8.9109%) / 100000]
k = 0.089109 + [(1000 * 1.089109) / 100000]
k = 0.089109 + [1089.109 / 100000]
k = 0.089109 + 0.01089109
k = 0.10000009
k = 10%

Description: It is simple recurring deposit (RD) calculator for calculating the maturity amount(money which you’ll get after certain time period) for given fixed monthly deposit. You don’t need to install any plugin or software. Just enter the values in above text fields and click “Calculate” button.

Formula: M = ( R x [(1+r)n – 1 ] ) / (1-(1+r)-1/3)

Where,
M = Maturity value
R = Monthly Installment
r = Rate of Interest (i) / 400
n = Number of Quarters

Example: M = (1200* ((1+10/400)10 – 1 ) ) / (1-(1+10/400)-1/3)

= 41002.533

Description:Use this calculator to calculate the internal rate of return (IRR) and measure the profitability of an investment. Simply enter your initial investment figure and yearly cash flow figures. You can add and remove years as you require. An explanation of IRR is available further down this page.

Formula :

IRR=(case flow year 1(1+r)1+ case flow year 2(1+r)2+ case flow year 3(1+r)3 + case flow year 4(1+r)4) – Initial Investment

Example: Initial Investment = 100,000

R = 8% = 8100= 0.08

Year 1: 20,000

Year 2: 30,000

Year 3: 40,000

Year 4: 40,000

IRR = (20,000(1+8%)1+ 30,000(1+8%)2+ 40,000(1+8%)3 + 40,000(1+8%)4) – 100,000

= 5834.1135

Description: The online FD calculator to find the maturity value and the amount for the interest rate. Fixed deposit is a kind of saving offered by the banks for a fixed period of time. FD account is beneficial for long term investment, as customers can get a high-interest rate for the invested amount at the end of the maturity period. Enter the principal, rate of interest and period in the fixed deposit interest &amp; maturity calculator to calculate the maturity value.

Formula: A = P x (1 + r/n)nt
I = A – P
Where,
A = Maturity Value
P = Principal Amount
r = Rate of Interest
t = Number of Period
n = Compounded Interest Frequency
I = Interest Earned Amount

Example: Step 1 : Frequency is annually

Hence n = 1

Step 2 : Maturity value = 50000 * (1 + 0.05 / 1)1*3 = 50000 * (1.05)1*3 = 57881. 25

#### Step 3 : Interest Earned Amount = 57881.25 – 50000 = 7881.25

Description: Equated Monthly Installment – EMI for short – is the amount payable every month to the bank or any other financial institution until the loan amount is fully paid off. It consists of the interest on loan as well as part of the principal amount to be repaid. The sum of principal amount and interest is divided by the tenure, i.e., number of months, in which the loan has to be repaid. This amount has to be paid monthly. The interest component of the EMI would be larger during the initial months and gradually reduce with each payment. The exact percentage allocated towards payment of the principal depends on the interest rate. Even though your monthly EMI payment won’t change, the proportion of principal and interest components will change with time. With each successive payment, you’ll pay more towards the principal and less in interest.

Formula: E = P x r x (1+r)^n/((1+r)^n – 1)

Where,

E is the amount that you will have to pay every month; basically the EMI.

P is the amount that you want to borrow.

r is the rate of interest that is applicable but calculated on a monthly basis instead of the annual rate of interest. It is obtained by using the formula r = (annual interest/12) x 100.

n is the duration of the loan in terms of months. So if you select a term of 5 years, n will be 60.

Example: EMI = 10,00,000 * 0.00875 * (1 + 0.00875)120 / ((1 + 0.00875)120 – 1)

= ₹13,493.4996

Description

Density conversion tool enables you to quickly calculate the weight to volume ratio in any of the available units. Density itself is a mass of a substance per its volume and it’s usually expressed by the Greek letter ρ and expressed in various density units. Density of water in lb/gal or, if using metric system, density of water in grams per cubic centimeter can also be calculated using this tool.

## Density units

Throughout the world various density units are in use, some of them include:

• kilograms per cubic meter – which is also an official SI unit for density
• grams per cubic centimeter – another metric unit used in most countries around the world, 1 g/cm3 equals 1000 kg/m3
• avoirdupois ounces per cubic inch – 1 oz/cu in = 1,730 kg/m3
• avoirdupois pounds per cubic inch – another unit used mainly in the US
• pounds per US liquid gallon – which equal 0.11983 kg/m3

Formula

S * C = E

Where,

S is our starting value,

C is our conversion factor,

E is our end converted result.

Example

10 x grain/cubic foot = gram/cubic meter

10 grain/cubic foot = 20.85737 gram/cubic meter

Description: The number 0 & 1s are called binary number and represented by base-2 notations, whereas, the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 are called as octal numbers and represented by base-8 notations. The binary to octal conversion can be done by grouping of bits method. Follow the below steps to perform such conversions manually.

Formula:

step 1: Separate the digits of a given binary number into groups from right to left side, each containing 4 bits.

step 2: Add 0’s to the left, if the last group doesn’t contain 3 digits.

step 3: Find the equivalent octal number for each group.

step 4: Write the all groups octal numbers together, maintaining the group order provides the equivalent octal number for the given binary.

Example:

Convert Binary number (111110011001)2 to its octal equivalent

1111100110012 =111 110  011 001 grouped with padding

= 7631

OR

Formula:

Step 1:Take the given binary number

Step 2:Multiply each digit by 2n-1 where n is the position of the digit from the decimal.If it is a decimal number multiply the each digit in the decimal part by ,m is the position of the digit from the decimal point

Step 3:The resultant is the equivalent decimal number for the given binary number.

Step 4: Divide the decimal with 8

Step 5: Note the remainder

Step 6: Continue the above two steps with the quotient till the quotient is zero

Step 7: Write the remainder in the reverse order

Step 8: The resultant is the required octal number for the given binary number.

Example:

Given binary number is 011012

First we convert given binary to decimal

011012 = (0 * 24) + (1 * 23) + (1 * 23) + (0 * 2) + (1 *20)

= 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 +1

= 13(Decimal form)

Quotient is 1

Remainder is 5

Description: Both binary numbers and hexadecimal numbers are generally used in digital electronic system. In binary, we represent the number in two digits, 0 and 1. In binary number, the base is two. In hexadecimal number, the base is sixteen. The sixteen digits used in this number system are numbers from 0-9 and alphabets from A – F. Any number can be represented by hexadecimal number. Here, we are going to deal with how to convert binary number to hexadecimal number. To convert binary number to hexadecimal number, there is some particular way. We can’t directly convert this. First, we have to convert binary to decimal number system. Then, convert that decimal number to hexadecimal number system. In this article, we learn the steps for this conversion.

Formula:

Step 1: The given number is in binary from.

Step 2: First, we have to change the binary number into decimal number.

Step 3: Then, we count the number of binary digits in the given number. Let there be n numbers.

Step 4: Then, we multiply each digit with 2n-1, when n is equal to number of position from right side.

Step 5: Add all numbers after multiplication.

Step 6: Now, the binary number is in decimal number.

Step 7: Now, convert decimal to hexadecimal. If the decimal number is less than sixteen, it will be converted by above table.

Step 8: If decimal number is greater than sixteen, it should be divided by 16.

Step 9: Remainder must be less than 16. (It will be converted by table).

Step 10: Then, we write quotient first and then hexadecimal form of remainder together.

Step 11: The resultant is in hexadecimal form of given binary number.

Example:

The given binary number is 01011011

Now, we convert it first to decimal number

So,

01011011 =(0 × 27) + (1 × 26) + (0 × 25) + (1 × 24) + (1 × 23) + (0 × 22) + (1 × 21) + (1 × 20)

= (0 × 128) + (1 × 64) + (0 × 32) + (1 × 16) + (1 × 8) + (0 × 4) + (1 × 2) + (1 × 1)

= 0 + 64 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1

= 91 (decimal form of binary number)

Now, we have to change it into hexadecimal number.

So, 91 is greater than 16. So, we have to divide by 16.

After dividing by 16, quotient is 5 and remainder is 11.

So, 11 => B

Remainder is less than 16.

Hexadecimal number of remainder is B.

Quotient is 5 and hexadecimal number of remainder is B.

That is, 91 = 16 × 5 +11

5 = 16 × 0 + 5

So, 5B is the hexadecimal number equivalent to decimal number 91.

OR

Formula:

step 1: Split the given binary number into groups from right, each containing 4 bits.

step 2: Add 0 or 0s to the left side if any group is lack of 4 bits.

step 3: Find the Hex equivalent for each group.

step 4: Form the each group Hex number together in the same order.

Example:

Convert the binary 1011010 to Hex number

10100102 => 0101 1010 grouped with padding

=> 5 A

= 5A16

Description: The binary number system is not the usual number system to easily understand & to read for humans, therefore, it is often required to convert the binary number into its equivalent decimal number to make it easily readable. The below step by step conversion & solved example let the users to understand how to convert binary to decimal number. The rightmost digit of the binary number has the weightage of 20 and the power of 2 will increase by 1 for each successive digit from right to left (see the solved example below). It’s also called as the place value of binary digits. The sum of products of binary digits & place value provides its equivalent decimal value.

Formula:

Step 1: The given number is in binary from.

Step 2: First, we have to change the binary number into decimal number.

Step 3: Then, we count the number of binary digits in the given number. Let there be n numbers.

Step 4: Then, we multiply each digit with 2n-1, when n is equal to number of position from right side.

Step 5: Add all numbers after multiplication.

Step 6: Now, the binary number is in decimal number.

Example: The given binary number is 01011011

Now, we convert it first to decimal number

So,

01011011 =(0 × 27) + (1 × 26) + (0 × 25) + (1 × 24) + (1 × 23) + (0 × 22) + (1 × 21) + (1 × 20)

= (0 × 128) + (1 × 64) + (0 × 32) + (1 × 16) + (1 × 8) + (0 × 4) + (1 × 2) + (1 × 1)

= 0 + 64 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1

= 91 (decimal form of binary number)

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